An Imperial Red-ground Famille-rose Enamel Bowl with Lotus Patter, Kangxi Seal Mark
Lot No. ：PYG-210820
Centuries of Style：Kangxi Emperor (1*) of Qing dynasty (1644-1911).
Feature：A bowl, famille-rose enamel (2*), red-ground, flowers pattern.
1* The Kangxi Emperor (1654–1722), personal name Xuanye, was the fourth emperor of the Qing dynasty, the second Qing emperor to rule over that part of China, from 1661 to 1722. The Kangxi Emperor's reign of 61 years makes him the longest-reigning emperor in Chinese history (although his grandson, the Qianlong Emperor, had the longest period of de facto power) and one of the longest-reigning rulers in the world. The Kangxi Emperor is considered one of China's greatest emperors. The Kangxi Emperor's reign brought about long-term stability and relative wealth after years of war and chaos. He initiated the period known as the "Prosperous Era of Kangxi and Qianlong" or "High Qing", which lasted for several generations after his death. His court also accomplished such literary feats as the compilation of the Kangxi Dictionary. China's famed blue and white porcelain probably reached its zenith during the Kangxi Emperor's reign.
2* Famille-rose, is the group of Chinese porcelain wares characterized by decoration painted in opaque overglaze rose colors, often involving shades of pink and carmine. These colors were known to the Chinese as yangcai (“foreign colors”) --In the Qianlong reign it acquired the name yangcai, but in the Yongzheng reign it was known as ruancai (soft colors)-- because they were first introduced from Europe (around 1685). The enamel paint used was originally the type of glaze applied to metal wares, such as cloisonné, and was adapted to porcelain after it entered China. The best quality famille-rose export wares date from the Yongzheng period (1723-1735). Compared with the transparent famille verte enamels of the previous Kangxi period (kangxi wucai) this new opaque palette could be fired at a lower temperature and had a wider color range. During the Yongzheng reign, famille rose wares reached their zenith, replacing the famille verte of the Kangxi reign and becoming the dominate palette in overglaze decoration. During the Qianlong reign, new techniques continued to develop. Typically the details of the decoration was filled in within outlines rather than 'boneless'. More colors began to appear as the background. The decoration was painted not only on a white transparent porcelain glaze but also on colored backgrounds such as yellow, blue, pink, coral red, light green, 'cafe au lait' and (Batavia) brown, etc. The designs also grew increasingly complex. Famille rose porcelain reached a climax of perfection at Jingdezhen under the directions of Nian Xiyao and Tang Ying, and continued with great delicacy through the Qianlong period (1735-1796). However, fencai did not appear in official records until the beginning of the 20th century.
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