A Fine Famille-Rose Enamel Bowl with Butterflies and Flowers Pattern, Yongzheng Seal Mark
Lot No. ：PYG-190827
Centuries of Style：Yongzheng Emperor(1*) (1723–1735) of Qing dynasty (1644-1911)
Feature：A bowl, famille-rose enamel (2*).
1* The Yongzheng Emperor(1678 - 1735), born Yinzhen, was the fifth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty and the third Qing emperor to rule over China proper. He reigned from 1723 to 1735. A hard-working ruler, the Yongzheng Emperor's main goal was to create an effective government at minimal expense. Like his father, the Kangxi Emperor, the Yongzheng Emperor used military force to preserve the dynasty's position. His reign was known for being despotic, efficient, and vigorous.
2* Famille-rose, is the group of Chinese porcelain wares characterized by decoration painted in opaque overglaze rose colors, often involving shades of pink and carmine. These colors were known to the Chinese as yangcai (“foreign colors”) --In the Qianlong reign it acquired the name yangcai, but in the Yongzheng reign it was known as ruancai (soft colors)-- because they were first introduced from Europe (around 1685). The enamel paint used was originally the type of glaze applied to metal wares, such as cloisonné, and was adapted to porcelain after it entered China. The best quality famille-rose export wares date from the Yongzheng period (1723-1735). Compared with the transparent famille verte enamels of the previous Kangxi period (kangxi wucai) this new opaque palette could be fired at a lower temperature and had a wider color range. During the Yongzheng reign, famille rose wares reached their zenith, replacing the famille verte of the Kangxi reign and becoming the dominate palette in overglaze decoration. During the Qianlong reign, new techniques continued to develop. Typically the details of the decoration was filled in within outlines rather than 'boneless'. More colors began to appear as the background. The decoration was painted not only on a white transparent porcelain glaze but also on colored backgrounds such as yellow, blue, pink, coral red, light green, 'cafe au lait' and (Batavia) brown, etc. The designs also grew increasingly complex. Famille rose porcelain reached a climax of perfection at Jingdezhen under the directions of Nian Xiyao and Tang Ying, and continued with great delicacy through the Qianlong period (1735-1796). However, fencai did not appear in official records until the beginning of the 20th century.
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