A Fine Famille-Rose Enamel Plate with Flowers and Birds, Qianlong Seal Mark
Lot No. ：ZG-190402
Centuries of Style：Qianlong Emperor (1711-1799) of Qing dynasty (1644-1911)
Feature：A plate, famille-rose enamel.
1* The Qianlong Emperor (1711-1799) was the sixth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty (1644-1911) , and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China proper. Born Aisin Gioro Hongli, the fourth son of the Yongzheng Emperor, he reigned officially from 11 October 1735 to 8 February 1796.1 On 8 February. He thus was the longest-reigning de facto ruler in the history of China, and dying at the age of 87, the longest-living. As a capable and cultured ruler inheriting a thriving empire, during his long reign the Qing Empire reached its most splendid and prosperous era, boasting a large population and economy, with various military campaigns expand its territory to the largest extent. He had an insatiable appetite for collecting, and acquired much of China's "great private collections" by any means necessary, and "reintegrated their treasures into the imperial collection." The Qianlong Emperor's massive art collection became an intimate part of his life. in addition to pottery, ceramics and applied arts such as enameling, metal work and lacquer work, which flourished during his reign; a substantial part of his collection is in the Percival David Foundation in London. The Victoria and Albert Museum and British Museum also have collections of art from the Qianlong era.
2* Famille-rose, is the group of Chinese porcelain wares characterized by decoration painted in opaque overglaze rose colors, often involving shades of pink and carmine. These colors were known to the Chinese as yangcai (“foreign colors”) --In the Qianlong reign it acquired the name yangcai, but in the Yongzheng reign it was known as ruancai (soft colors)-- because they were first introduced from Europe (around 1685). The enamel paint used was originally the type of glaze applied to metal wares, such as cloisonné, and was adapted to porcelain after it entered China. The best quality famille-rose export wares date from the Yongzheng period (1723-1735). Compared with the transparent famille verte enamels of the previous Kangxi period (kangxi wucai) this new opaque palette could be fired at a lower temperature and had a wider color range. During the Yongzheng reign, famille rose wares reached their zenith, replacing the famille verte of the Kangxi reign and becoming the dominate palette in overglaze decoration. During the Qianlong reign, new techniques continued to develop. Typically the details of the decoration was filled in within outlines rather than 'boneless'. More colors began to appear as the background. The decoration was painted not only on a white transparent porcelain glaze but also on colored backgrounds such as yellow, blue, pink, coral red, light green, 'cafe au lait' and (Batavia) brown, etc. The designs also grew increasingly complex. Famille rose porcelain reached a climax of perfection at Jingdezhen under the directions of Nian Xiyao and Tang Ying, and continued with great delicacy through the Qianlong period (1735-1796). However, fencai did not appear in official records until the beginning of the 20th century.
For more information, visit China Private Art Collection and Exchange Association